son Musa al-Kadhim as the.
Page 264 3 Lapidus (2002,. .
Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery.To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali signed a peace treaty, abdicating to Mu'awiyah, beginning the Umayyad dynasty, in return that he not name his own successor.109 Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf which means perpetual religious endowment.230 The other branch of kalam was the Ash'ari school founded by Al-Ash'ari.The Sealed Nectar : Biography of the Prophet.Trimingham (1998.1 Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson.Journal of the American Oriental Society.It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant hade sex tredje dagen of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religionsmodifying some and rejecting others.
Alatas, Syed Farid (2006).
Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker Press.
Even Moshe Gil a skeptic of Islamic history argues that it was written within five months of Muhammad's arrival in Medina.Abu Bakr's death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali.The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (1st.).The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr ( Arabic : ) lokala sex dejting app on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha ( ) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj pilgrimage.84) Gardet,.; Jomier,.; Bianquis,.; Bosworth,.The Mosque in America: A National Portrait Archived at the Wayback Machine."The Significant Role of Sufism in Central Asia" (PDF).160-9 Dar al-Ma'aarif edition Meri, Josef.Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7).